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作家止庵:义和团的思维方式仍然存在

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月22日 08:53:48
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腾讯分分彩龙虎口诀平台直属招商客服【微信QQ同步】7915171诚招代理龙虎和龙虎1赔2.211合1赔9.95,定位胆1赔9.95腾讯5,10分欢乐生肖,最高返水100反9快,最高赔率,正规信誉大平台平台24h提供注册及登录。作家止庵:义和团的思维方式仍然存在

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(义)(和)(团)(宣)(扬)(法)(术)(、神)(力)(,其)(后)(很)(快)(遭)(到)(清)(军)(镇)(压)(。
  一)(百)(多)(年)(前)(的)(义)(和)(团)(运)(动)(,至)(今)(仍)(时)(常)(被)(人)(提)(起)(。无)(数)(华)(北)(贫)(苦)(农)(民)(降)(神)(、施)(法)(,自)(信)(“刀)(枪)(不)(入)(”,以)(血)(肉)(之)(躯)(与)(敌)(人)(的)(枪)(炮)(拼)(搏)(。慈)(禧)(的)(一)(句)(“即)(使)(法)(术)(不)(可)(信)(,至)(少)(还)(有)(民)(心)(”,轻)(易)(地)(了)(结)(了)(朝)(廷)(中)(对)(义)(和)(团)(法)(术)(是)(否)(灵)(验)(、是)(否)(可)(以)(凭)(恃)(的)(争)(论)(,统)(治)(阶)(级)(复)(杂)(的)(内)(外)(政)(权)(斡)(旋)(转)(化)(为)(顺)(应)(民)(心)(之)(举)(。
  上)(周)(末)(的)(上)(海)(,在)(复)(旦)(大)(学)(复)(兴)(论)(坛)(、思)(南)(读)(书)(会)(两)(场)(活)(动)(上)(,作)(家)(止)(庵)(带)(来)(了)(他)(的)(《神)(拳)(考)(》一)(书)(,并)(接)(受)(了)(东)(方)(早)(报)(专)(访)(。
  止)(庵)(认)(为)(中)(国)(文)(化)(中)(不)(无)(不)(相)(信)(事)(实)(却)(相)(信)(虚)(妄)(的)(一)(面)(,而)(探)(寻)(这)(份)(虚)(妄)(的)(所)(在)(,正)(是)(他)(写)(作)(此)(书)(、理)(解)(当)(年)(人)(物)(种)(种)(作)(为)(的)(路)(径)(。止)(庵)(所)(写)(的)(不)(是)(一)(本)(历)(史)(评)(价)(的)(书)(,而)(是)(采)(用)(文)(化)(批)(评)(的)(方)(式)(去)(观)(察)(那)(一)(时)(期)(人)(们)(的)(心)(理)(状)(态)(。“义)(和)(团)(要)(是)(知)(道)(自)(己)(的)(法)(术)(不)(灵)(,他)(们)(是)(否)(还)(会)(那)(么)(自)(信)(和)(勇)(猛)(;朝)(廷)(和)(民)(众)(要)(是)(事)(先)(知)(道)(义)(和)(团)(法)(术)(不)(灵)(,是)(否)(还)(会)(把)(希)(望)(寄)(托)(在)(他)(们)(身)(上)(?”止)(庵)(说)(,他)(的)(写)(作)(始)(于)(自)(己)(的)(这)(一)(疑)(问)(。
  不)(下)(雨)(是)(洋)(鬼)(子)(捣)(乱)(所)(致)(
  止)(庵)(以)(研)(究)(周)(作)(人)(、张)(爱)(玲)(闻)(名)(,为)(何)(又)(要)(下)(那)(么)(大)(功)(夫)(研)(究)(义)(和)(团)(呢)(?在)(接)(受)(早)(报)(记)(者)(专)(访)(时)(,止)(庵)(用)(这)(样)(一)(个)(例)(子)(说)(起)(:“周)(作)(人)(《知)(堂)(回)(想)(录)(》里)(讲)(钱)(玄)(同)(来)(到)(北)(京)(,用)(的)(车)(夫)(以)(前)(是)(个)(义)(和)(团)(民)(,后)(来)(改)(信)(天)(主)(教)(了)(。钱)(玄)(同)(问)(怎)(么)(回)(事)(,车)(夫)(说)(:他)(们)(的)(菩)(萨)(灵)(,我)(们)(的)(不)(灵)(。”历)(史)(的)(大)(网)(牵)(引)(着)(每)(一)(个)(时)(间)(点)(,这)(种)(互)(相)(牵)(扯)(的)(关)(联)(性)(让)(事)(件)(具)(有)(了)(故)(事)(性)(。但)(是)(止)(庵)(说)(:“我)(为)(写)(这)(本)(书)(读)(了)(700多)(万)(字)(材)(料)(,然)(后)(把)(历)(史)(学)(家)(弃)(而)(不)(用)(的)(所)(谓)(当)(时)(的)(大)(话)(、空)(话)(、假)(话)(和)(我)(们)(听)(不)(懂)(的)(话)(十)(几)(万)(字)(抄)(下)(来)(,据)(此)(写)(了)(这)(本)(书)(,这)(些)(真)(实)(的)(史)(料)(比)(小)(说)(有)(意)(思)(多)(了)(,我)(想)(这)(些)(材)(料)(现)(在)(的)(人)(也)(不)(妨)(看)(看)(。”
  书)(中)(写)(道)(,面)(对)(义)(和)(团)(运)(动)(的)(威)(胁)(,时)(任)(英)(国)(驻)(北)(京)(公)(使)(的)(窦)(纳)(乐)(称)(,“我)(相)(信)(,只)(要)(下)(几)(天)(大)(雨)(……将)(比)(中)(国)(政)(府)(或)(外)(国)(政)(府)(的)(任)(何)(措)(施)(都)(更)(迅)(速)(地)(恢)(复)(平)(静)(。”在)(信)(后)(他)(附)(上)(当)(时)(北)(京)(西)(城)(张)(贴)(的)(义)(和)(团)(揭)(帖)(:“今)(天)(不)(下)(雨)(,乃)(因)(洋)(鬼)(子)(捣)(乱)(所)(致)(。……消)(灭)(洋)(鬼)(子)(之)(日)(,便)(是)(风)(调)(雨)(顺)(之)(时)(。”止)(庵)(称)(,在)(饱)(受)(旱)(灾)(的)(农)(民)(看)(来)(,灾)(是)(“鬼)(”,也)(就)(是)(那)(些)(传)(教)(来)(的)(洋)(鬼)(闹)(的)(。
  一)(首)(出)(名)(的)(义)(和)(团)(乱)(语)(对)(这)(种)(逻)(辑)(有)(非)(常)(明)(晰)(的)(概)(括)(:“神)(助)(拳)(,义)(和)(团)(,只)(因)(鬼)(子)(闹)(中)(原)(。……男)(无)(伦)(,女)(行)(奸)(,鬼)(孩)(俱)(是)(子)(母)(产)(;如)(不)(信)(,仔)(细)(观)(,鬼)(子)(眼)(珠)(俱)(发)(蓝)(。天)(无)(雨)(,地)(焦)(旱)(,全)(是)(教)(堂)(止)(住)(天)(。……念)(咒)(语)(,法)(真)(言)(,升)(黄)(表)(,敬)(香)(烟)(,请)(下)(各)(洞)(诸)(神)(仙)(。……拆)(铁)(路)(,拔)(线)(杆)(,紧)(急)(毁)(坏)(火)(轮)(船)(。……”教)(堂)(、旱)(灾)(,以)(及)(越)(来)(越)(多)(的)(义)(和)(团)(焚)(毁)(教)(堂)(行)(动)(,被)(赋)(予)(新)(的)(意)(义)(。
  人)(与)(神)(的)(距)(离)(从)(未)(这)(样)(接)(近)(过)(
  “义)(和)(团)(在)(山)(东)(的)(前)(身)(是)(神)(拳)(,已)(经)(具)(有)(神)(的)(观)(念)(;作)(为)(这)(一)(观)(念)(的)(具)(体)(体)(现)(和)(人)(神)(之)(间)(的)(交)(流)(形)(式)(降)(神)(,早)(就)(存)(在)(了)(;作)(为)(降)(神)(结)(果)(之)(一)(的)(刀)(枪)(不)(入)(,也)(为)(习)(拳)(者)(所)(相)(信)(。此)(外)(最)(关)(键)(的)(是)(,降)(神)(仪)(式)(极)(易)(操)(作)(,有)(念)(咒)(、焚)(香)(,乃)(至)(一)(跺)(脚)(,神)(就)(附)(体)(了)(。如)(果)(仪)(式)(太)(复)(杂)(,很)(多)(没)(有)(接)(受)(过)(教)(育)(的)(农)(民)(就)(做)(不)(了)(了)(。人)(与)(神)(的)(距)(离)(似)(乎)(从)(未)(如)(此)(这)(样)(接)(近)(过)(,简)(直)(是)(招)(之)(即)(来)(。此)(外)(神)(之)(于)(义)(和)(团)(如)(此)(重)(要)(,但)(是)(要)(想)(胪)(列)(一)(份)(详)(尽)(的)(义)(和)(团)(神)(谱)(却)(几)(乎)(是)(不)(可)(能)(的)(。义)(和)(团)(有)(着)(代)(表)(本)(土)(宗)(教)(对)(抗)(外)(来)(宗)(教)(的)(强)(烈)(色)(彩)(,不)(仅)(奉)(的)(神)(糅)(杂)(自)(佛)(道)(诸)(教)(,仪)(式)(装)(束)(也)(由)(那)(里)(拼)(凑)(而)(来)(。”
  当)(时)(有)(个)(咒)(语)(是)(这)(样)(念)(的)(:“天)(灵)(灵)(,地)(灵)(灵)(,奉)(请)(祖)(师)(来)(显)(灵)(,一)(请)(唐)(僧)(猪)(八)(戒)(,二)(请)(沙)(僧)(孙)(悟)(空)(,三)(请)(二)(郎)(来)(显)(灵)(,四)(请)(马)(超)(黄)(汉)(升)(,五)(请)(济)(颠)(我)(佛)(祖)(,六)(请)(江)(湖)(柳)(树)(精)(,七)(请)(飞)(镖)(黄)(三)(太)(,八)(请)(前)(朝)(冷)(于)(冰)(,九)(请)(华)(佗)(来)(治)(病)(,十)(请)(托)(塔)(天)(王)(金)(吒)(木)(吒)(哪)(吒)(三)(太)(子)(,率)(领)(天)(上)(十)(万)(神)(兵)(。”止)(庵)(介)(绍)(说)(,义)(和)(团)(所)(奉)(的)(神)(是)(由)(当)(时)(底)(层)(民)(众)(整)(体)(的)(文)(化)(构)(成)(决)(定)(的)(,他)(们)(所)(接)(受)(的)(内)(容)(大)(多)(数)(是)(听)(书)(、看)(戏)(得)(来)(,通)(过)(降)(神)(,自)(己)(变)(成)(了)(自)(己)(心)(中)(的)(偶)(像)(。义)(和)(团)(给)(身)(处)(底)(层)(的)(民)(众)(提)(供)(了)(一)(次)(使)(自)(己)(突)(然)(变)(得)(伟)(大)(的)(机)(会)(。止)(庵)(认)(为)(,这)(也)(是)(义)(和)(团)(如)(此)(具)(有)(号)(召)(力)(的)(原)(因)(。“这)(一)(运)(动)(更)(是)(场)(神)(的)(而)(不)(是)(人)(的)(战)(争)(;所)(凭)(借)(的)(是)(法)(术)(,而)(不)(是)(人)(力)(;起)(着)(决)(定)(作)(用)(的)(是)(神)(,而)(不)(是)(人)(;人)(只)(是)(神)(的)(载)(体)(,其)(意)(义)(也)(仅)(仅)(在)(于)(能)(否)(成)(为)(载)(体)(。”
  止)(庵)(认)(为)(,朝)(廷)(对)(义)(和)(团)(的)(支)(持)(和)(基)(层)(统)(治)(的)(瘫)(痪)(,使)(得)(团)(民)(建)(立)(了)(一)(种)(新)(的)(权)(威)(,除)(了)(洋)(人)(、教)(民)(,洋)(货)(也)(成)(了)(义)(和)(团)(另)(一)(主)(要)(攻)(击)(对)(象)(,城)(内)(外)(凡)(沾)(洋)(字)(的)(洋)(货)(尽)(行)(毁)(坏)(,“城)(内)(城)(外)(各)(行)(铺)(户)(与)(各)(街)(住)(户)(,义)(和)(团)(俱)(饬)(令)(避)(忌)(洋)(字)(,如)(洋)(药)(局)(改)(为)(土)(药)(局)(,洋)(货)(改)(为)(广)(货)(,洋)(布)(改)(为)(细)(布)(。”止)(庵)(分)(析)(,他)(们)(相)(信)(,语)(言)(有)(着)(超)(自)(然)(的)(力)(量)(,改)(变)(称)(呼)(和)(说)(法)(,则)(可)(以)(避)(免)(灾)(害)(,甚)(至)(赢)(得)(胜)(利)(,“义)(和)(团)(仪)(式)(成)(为)(全)(体)(民)(众)(的)(举)(动)(,意)(味)(着)(神)(真)(正)(降)(临)(人)(间)(,整)(个)(社)(会)(已)(经)(被)(巫)(术)(化)(了)(。”
  洋)(人)(、教)(士)(、教)(民)(和)(八)(国)(联)(军)(,这)(些)(义)(和)(团)(的)(斗)(争)(对)(象)(被)(想)(象)(成)(鬼)(或)(怪)(物)(,战)(争)(本)(身)(有)(时)(就)(是)(一)(系)(列)(想)(象)(中)(的)(神)(鬼)(斗)(法)(。有)(时)(,团)(民)(更)(满)(足)(于)(编)(造)(一)(些)(恍)(惚)(迷)(离)(的)(神)(怪)(故)(事)(,例)(如)(八)(百)(余)(岁)(洋)(人)(在)(教)(堂)(里)(作)(法)(,忽)(然)(不)(见)(了)(遁)(地)(而)(去)(。不)(管)(什)(么)(事)(情)(出)(现)(,都)(会)(被)(附)(会)(出)(特)(别)(的)(意)(义)(。止)(庵)(称)(,历)(史)(上)(我)(们)(很)(少)(遇)(见)(集)(体)(想)(象)(力)(这)(么)(发)(达)(的)(时)(候)(,而)(且)(大)(家)(无)(一)(不)(把)(想)(象)(看)(成)(是)(现)(实)(。
  从)(根)(本)(上)(讲)(这)(是)(一)(种)(思)(维)(方)(式)(
  如)(果)(只)(有)(上)(述)(义)(和)(团)(和)(民)(众)(两)(方)(面)(的)(参)(与)(,历)(史)(不)(会)(是)(我)(们)(所)(知)(道)(的)(那)(样)(,还)(需)(要)(有)(朝)(廷)(的)(参)(与)(。止)(庵)(在)(书)(中)(称)(,正)(是)(朝)(廷)(最)(终)(把)(民)(间)(自)(发)(的)(义)(和)(团)(变)(成)(作)(为)(历)(史)(事)(件)(的)(义)(和)(团)(运)(动)(。这)(不)(是)(孤)(立)(的)(历)(史)(事)(件)(,它)(是)(当)(时)(中)(国)(政)(治)(大)(格)(局)(的)(组)(成)(部)(分)(之)(一)(,其)(中)(交)(织)(着)(中)(外)(之)(间)(、满)(汉)(之)(间)(、帝)(后)(之)(间)(和)(维)(新)(保)(守)(两)(派)(之)(间)(一)(系)(列)(错)(综)(复)(杂)(的)(矛)(盾)(。朝)(廷)(实)(权)(一)(派)(想)(利)(用)(义)(和)(团)(“扶)(清)(灭)(洋)(”,但)(是)(他)(们)(所)(要)(“扶)(”的)(“清)(”,第)(一)(是)(那)(个)(“天)(位)(”,其)(次)(才)(是)(大)(清)(。
  书)(中)(写)(道)(:“在)(并)(不)(认)(识)(世)(界)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,中)(国)(与)(世)(界)(发)(生)(了)(战)(争)(。”止)(庵)(补)(充)(道)(:“当)(时)(的)(统)(治)(者)(很)(少)(有)(人)(想)(清)(楚)(这)(一)(切)(到)(底)(是)(怎)(么)(回)(事)(,除)(了)(光)(绪)(以)(及)(被)(杀)(的)(五)(大)(臣)(之)(外)(。事)(实)(上)(当)(时)(朝)(廷)(中)(只)(有)(少)(数)(人)((尽)(管)(他)(们)(掌)(握)(着)(主)(要)(权)(力)()企)(图)(利)(用)(义)(和)(团)(达)(到)(个)(人)(目)(的)(,大)(部)(分)(在)(职)(官)(员)(和)(作)(为)(他)(们)(替)(补)(的)(民)(间)(读)(书)(人)(,如)(此)(热)(情)(欢)(呼)(义)(和)(团)(的)(出)(现)(,积)(极)(投)(身)(这)(一)(运)(动)(,绝)(不)(是)(利)(用)(二)(字)(能)(解)(释)(得)(了)(的)(。义)(和)(团)(从)(根)(本)(上)(讲)(,体)(现)(了)(一)(种)(思)(维)(方)(式)(。不)(同)(文)(化)(层)(次)(的)(人)(的)(区)(别)(,也)(仅)(仅)(是)(要)(么)(不)(讲)(理)(,要)(么)(讲)(歪)(理)(而)(已)(。这)(一)(思)(维)(方)(式)(就)(是)(不)(求)(实)(证)(,不)(讲)(逻)(辑)(。”“这)(种)(愚)(蠢)(登)(峰)(造)(极)(的)(表)(现)(,是)(朝)(廷)(专)(门)(礼)(聘)(五)(台)(山)(僧)(以)(助)(攻)(西)(什)(库)(教)(堂)(。倡)(导)(此)(举)(的)(启)(秀)(,打)(扮)(成)(团)(民)(亲)(自)(参)(与)(进)(攻)(的)(刚)(毅)(,无)(疑)(都)(是)(真)(诚)(的)(,这)(正)(是)(他)(们)(、朝)(廷)(乃)(至)(当)(时)(整)(个)(国)(家)(最)(具)(悲)(剧)(性)(的)(地)(方)(。只)(有)(真)(诚)(才)(会)(不)(顾)(及)(一)(切)(,也)(只)(有)(真)(诚)(才)(足)(以)(毁)(灭)(一)(切)(。”
  “义)(和)(团)(作)(法)(的)(时)(候)(,认)(为)(洋)(人)(也)(在)(作)(法)(,自)(己)(失)(败)(是)(因)(为)(对)(方)(的)(法)(术)(高)(明)(,自)(己)(的)(法)(术)(还)(不)(够)(,所)(以)(还)(得)(去)(请)(来)(更)(高)(明)(的)(人)(。另)(一)(方)(面)(,指)(责)(因)(法)(术)(失)(灵)(而)(阵)(亡)(的)(团)(民)(,认)(为)(他)(们)(道)(德)(败)(坏)(。该)(团)(友)(因)(贪)(财)(不)(听)(法)(令)(,以)(致)(符)(咒)(不)(灵)(,死)(有)(应)(得)(。人)(们)(越)(是)(鄙)(弃)(这)(个)(不)(幸)(的)(死)(难)(者)(,就)(越)(会)(相)(信)(法)(术)(可)(能)(灵)(验)(。这)(种)(种)(的)(解)(释)(,使)(得)(本)(来)(一)(时)(就)(可)(以)(验)(证)(真)(伪)(虚)(实)(的)(事)(延)(续)(为)(一)(个)(历)(程)(,繁)(衍)(为)(一)(场)(运)(动)(。”
  止)(庵)(认)(为)(,“时)(隔)(116年)(回)(头)(来)(看)(当)(年)(义)(和)(团)(民)(以)(及)(上)(至)(朝)(廷)(、下)(至)(百)(姓)(的)(所)(思)(所)(想)(、所)(作)(所)(为)(,用)(愚)(昧)(、可)(笑)(这)(些)(词)(来)(形)(容)(,未)(免)(太)(容)(易)(了)(,116年)(前)(的)(事)(好)(像)(已)(经)(非)(常)(遥)(远)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(,义)(和)(团)(出)(现)(的)(时)(候)(,欧)(洲)(工)(业)(革)(命)(已)(经)(发)(生)(,达)(尔)(文)(的)(《物)(种)(起)(源)(》、马)(克)(思)(的)(《资)(本)(论)(》都)(出)(版)(了)(,欧)(洲)(甚)(至)(都)(到)(世)(纪)(末)(了)(,在)(中)(国)(,洋)(务)(运)(动)(、戊)(戌)(变)(法)(都)(发)(生)(过)(了)(,出)(国)(的)(留)(学)(生)(都)(有)(学)(成)(回)(来)(的)(了)(,外)(国)(的)(机)(械)(、技)(术)(,各)(种)(洋)(货)(也)(被)(广)(泛)(使)(用)(,这)(之)(后)(再)(出)(现)(这)(件)(事)(,好)(像)(又)(太)(晚)(了)(,与)(我)(们)(所)(间)(隔)(的)(116年)(好)(像)(并)(不)(算)(长)(。我)(不)(认)(为)(那)(之)(后)(有)(与)(之)(可)(以)(完)(全)(类)(比)(的)(人)(或)(事)(,但)(义)(和)(团)(的)(思)(维)(方)(式)(、当)(时)(人)(不)(信)(真)(实)(反)(信)(虚)(妄)(,不)(求)(实)(证)(、不)(讲)(逻)(辑)(的)(现)(象)(,时)(至)(今)(日)(未)(必)(已)(经)(断)(绝)(。你)(看)(现)(在)(微)(信)(朋)(友)(圈)(,有)(时)(就)(跟)(义)(和)(团)(时)(的)(北)(京)(城)(差)(不)(多)(,很)(多)(人)(只)(看)(标)(题)(,连)(内)(容)(都)(不)(看)(,就)(匆)(忙)(转)(发)(。自)(己)(都)(未)(必)(相)(信)(的)(消)(息)(,就)(转)(给)(大)(家)(,还)(有)(长)(盛)(不)(衰)(的)(那)(些)(养)(生)(帖)(。开)(药)(方)(并)(不)(是)(我)(写)(这)(书)(的)(目)(的)(,但)(我)(认)(为)(讲)(实)(证)(、重)(逻)(辑)(,无)(论)(如)(何)(是)(应)(该)(强)(调)(的)(。”
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